Bible Study

Making Scents – Smell in the Bible

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When we talk about smell, we’re referring to that cool ability we humans (and animals too) have to detect substances in the air. You see, in the back of our noses, there’s a tiny patch of special sensory cells. When you sniff something, these cells get to work, detecting the odour and sending a message straight to your brain. We’ve got about 400 different types of these sensory cells, and they can detect a staggering one trillion different smells!

But smell isn’t just about figuring out what’s for dinner or who forgot to take out the bins. It’s also tied up with our emotions and memories, ever noticed how a particular scent can instantly transport you back to grandma’s kitchen or a memorable beach holiday? That’s the power of smell!

Those 400 different types of sensory cells I mentioned before? Well, they’re home to smell receptors – kind of like tiny lock and key mechanisms. The “keys” are odour molecules in the air, and the “locks” are the receptors. When a key fits a lock your brain gets the message that you’re smelling something.

Now, you might be thinking, “If we’ve only got 400 types of receptors, how can we smell a trillion different odours?” Good question! Each odour molecule doesn’t just fit one type of receptor. No, they can trigger a combination of different receptors at once. It’s this mix-and-match pattern that creates a unique signal for each smell. Kind of like how you can mix primary colours to make a whole rainbow, your brain can interpret different combinations of receptor signals to recognise a huge variety of smells.

And just to add another layer of intrigue, it’s also thought that our sense of whether a smell is good or bad might be partly wired into us genetically, though our personal experiences can also play a part. The world of smell is a fascinating place, and it’s literally right under our noses!

Okay, let’s talk about how smells factor into our social lives! You might not realise it, but smells play a big role in how we interact with others.

Ever walked into a room and caught a whiff of something nasty? Instant mood killer, right? And the opposite is true too! Being around pleasant smells can make us feel all warm and fuzzy inside. In fact, research shows that smells can affect our judgments of people. If someone’s got a nice smell going on, we tend to view them in a more positive light.

And then there’s the role of personal scents. Yes, we’ve all got our own unique smell, influenced by things like our diet, our health, and even our emotions. Some research suggests we might even be able to pick up on emotional cues from other people’s scents – there’s a truth in the smell of fear.

Then there’s the world of perfumes and colognes. Ever since ancient times, humans have been using scented products to smell good and express their personality. It’s a form of self-expression, and a way to make a memorable impression on others.

So smell is pretty important in our social lives! It’s a silent language, speaking volumes about us and influencing our connections with others.

Ever walked into a bakery and suddenly craved a croissant you didn’t even want before? That’s no accident! Businesses are totally clued in to the power of smell and they use it to their advantage.

Stores, hotels, and restaurants often use “scent marketing” to create a certain atmosphere or trigger emotional responses. The idea is to make you feel a certain way and influence your behaviour – like getting you to stay longer, buy more, or simply remember the brand. For instance, fresh bread smells in a supermarket can make you feel hungry and homely, and guess what? You might just end up buying more food!

Let’s take a little trip back to ancient cultures. Smell was a big deal back then too! Incense and perfumes were used for religious ceremonies, to ward off bad spirits, and as offerings to their gods. Think about the Egyptians and their use of incense in rituals, or the Romans and their love for perfumed oils. Sweet smells were seen as divine and linked to purity, while bad smells, well, they were often associated with evil and disease.

Even in day-to-day life, smells played a role. They were used to mask the not-so-pleasant odours, because let’s be honest, ancient plumbing wasn’t a thing. Perfumes were often a sign of status too – the rarer and more exotic, the better!

Now, let’s switch to our topic and talk about smell in the Bible. Just like in ancient cultures, smell had a lot of significance. The Bible talks about “pleasing aromas” to God, often referring to the sacrifices and offerings made by people. Incense was used in the Tabernacle and later in the Temple, symbolizing prayer ascending to God.

And it’s not just about physical smells either. Metaphorically, smell was used to talk about moral and spiritual qualities. Just as we associate certain smells with good or bad today, the Bible often links sweet smells with righteousness and foul smells with sin.

In fact, the Apostle Paul even uses the idea of smell to describe the influence of Christians. He calls believers the “aroma of Christ,” suggesting that just like a noticeable scent, followers of Jesus should have a clear and positive impact on those around them.

So, whether it’s ancient times or biblical times, the power of smell can’t be denied. It impacts our emotions, our judgments, and even our spirituality. Now, isn’t that something to sniff about!

Let’s look at some specific examples. Genesis 8:21 is a verse that’s packed with meaning and context.

Let’s start with the verse itself, “The Lord smelled the pleasing aroma and said in his heart: ‘Never again will I curse the ground because of humans, even though every inclination of the human heart is evil from childhood. And never again will I destroy all living creatures, as I have done.'”

This verse comes after a pretty big event – the Great Flood. After the waters recede, Noah’s Ark lands safely on dry ground. The first thing Noah does? He builds an altar and offers a sacrifice to God. The sacrifice is made from every clean animal and bird, a way of saying thanks and showing reverence.

To God, it was a “pleasing aroma.” Now, we need to remember that we’re not talking about God physically smelling something, because God isn’t a physical being like you and me. The use of “smelled” here is what we call an anthropomorphism – a way of describing God in human terms to help us understand Him better.

So, what’s up with the “pleasing aroma”? Throughout the Bible, this term is often used to describe God’s reaction to sacrifices. Like in Leviticus, where the burnt offerings are described as a “pleasing aroma” to the Lord. It’s a way of communicating that God is pleased with the sacrifice – that He accepts it and looks favourably upon it.

Let’s think about that in terms of our own experiences with smell. Imagine walking into your home and smelling your favourite food cooking – it’s pleasing, right? It makes you feel good, maybe even brings a smile to your face. That’s kind of the idea here – the “pleasing aroma” symbolizes a positive, approving response from God.

But it isn’t just about God being pleased with a sacrifice. It’s also about a promise – a covenant. God says in His heart, “Never again will I curse the ground because of humans… And never again will I destroy all living creatures, as I have done.”

Despite knowing that “every inclination of the human heart is evil from childhood,” God makes a promise. He acknowledges the sinfulness of humans, but decides to show mercy. He commits to never again destroy all life on earth, even though humans are bound to mess up again.

In a way, the “pleasing aroma” links to this promise, too. It’s like a turning point, a fresh start. The flood washed away the wickedness of the world, and now the pleasing aroma of Noah’s sacrifice symbolizes a new beginning. It’s like the sweet smell after a rainstorm, signalling a fresh start and renewed hope.

So, Genesis 8:21 – a single verse, but there is a lot packed into it! It’s a testament to the power of smell in the Bible, both as a way of symbolizing God’s responses and as a way of enriching the narrative. Even though it’s not about smell in the way we understand it – sniffing a flower or baking bread – it uses the concept of smell to communicate deep spiritual truths.

This ties back to what we’ve been talking about with the significance of smell. Just as smells can have a powerful effect on our moods and perceptions, the “pleasing aroma” in Genesis 8:21 shows us something about God’s character – His pleasure in obedience, His mercy despite human sinfulness, and His commitment to humanity.

Just as smell is a sensory experience that can bring us joy, comfort, and connection in our everyday lives, the “pleasing aroma” is a sensory experience that tells us a whole lot about our relationship with God.

Picture this, right after a huge, catastrophic event like the flood, God doesn’t just turn His back on humanity. No! Instead, He takes in the “pleasing aroma” of Noah’s sacrifice and makes a promise to never again destroy all living creatures. It’s like the ultimate do-over, the cleanest of clean slates. This moment right here? It’s pivotal in humanity’s relationship with God, and the “pleasing aroma” is at the heart of it all.

But, there’s more! This concept of a “pleasing aroma” to God doesn’t stop with Genesis. It’s sprinkled all throughout the Bible, popping up in the context of other sacrifices and offerings. Like when the Israelites are making offerings in the desert, or when Paul talks about living a life of love “as Christ loved us and gave himself up for us, a fragrant offering and sacrifice to God” (Ephesians 5:2). This idea of a “pleasing aroma” ties together these narratives and echoes the themes of obedience, mercy, and divine acceptance.

So, Genesis 8:21, it’s not just about a physical smell or a single moment after the flood. It’s a theme, a thread that weaves its way through Scripture, enriching the biblical narrative and shedding light on God’s interactions with humanity.

The cool part is, it’s all relatable on a human level. We know what it’s like to experience pleasant smells, to associate them with good things. In the same way, the “pleasing aroma” in the Bible helps us grasp divine concepts, gives us a glimpse into God’s nature, and invites us into a deeper understanding of His word.

So next time you catch a whiff of something – good or bad – maybe it’ll remind you of this “pleasing aroma” in the Bible. Maybe it’ll make you think about the nature of God, the significance of sacrifices, and the promises that shape our existence. And maybe, it’ll make the words of the Bible smell just a bit more real.

Let’s jump to the book of Exodus, specifically Exodus 30:1-10. This passage is all about the golden incense altar, and the role it plays in the Tabernacle is crucial!

Now, if you’re not up on your biblical architecture, the Tabernacle was basically a movable tent of meeting that the Israelites used for worship during their time wandering in the desert. It was the place where God’s presence would descend, and it was designed and built to God’s specific instructions. One of the key components? The golden altar of incense.

This altar, according to Exodus 30, was to be built of acacia wood, overlaid with pure gold, and placed in front of the curtain that separated the Holy Place from the Most Holy Place, where the Ark of the Covenant was kept. This wasn’t some side show – the incense altar was front and centre in the Tabernacle setup.

But the altar wasn’t just for show – it had a purpose. Aaron, the high priest, was instructed to burn fragrant incense on it every morning and every evening, continually before the Lord. The aroma of this incense was to fill the Tabernacle, creating a sensory atmosphere of worship and reverence.

But it’s not just about setting the mood. The incense had deep symbolic meaning. See, the smoke rising from the altar was seen as a symbol of the prayers and intercession of the people rising up to God. Just like the smoke floated up to the heavens, the Israelites’ prayers were thought to ascend to God’s presence.

So, burning incense? It wasn’t just a daily task, but a critical part of the Israelites’ relationship with God. It was a physical act that reflected a spiritual reality – the communication between God’s people and their Creator. And it was to be done right – God gave specific instructions for how and when the incense was to be burned.

Now, just burning any old thing won’t cut it. In Exodus 30:34-38, God gives a recipe for the incense – a special blend of spices that was not to be used for any other purpose. This was one very custom fragrance! This sacred mix emphasized the holiness of the Tabernacle rituals and set them apart from everyday life.

Let’s not forget about the annual Day of Atonement. On this holy day, Aaron was to make atonement on the horns of the altar with the blood of the sin offering. This was another way the incense altar was used to seek God’s mercy and forgiveness on behalf of the Israelites.

The incense altar was a big deal in the Tabernacle – a golden, aromatic symbol of prayer, atonement, and the Israelites’ relationship with God. But it’s not just ancient history. It’s a reminder of how our prayers, like the fragrant incense, rise before God. It’s a physical picture of a spiritual reality, a piece of the Tabernacle puzzle that can help us better understand God’s character and the way He relates with His people.

As you go about your day, smelling the scents around you, maybe you’ll remember the golden altar of incense and the sacred fragrance that filled the Tabernacle. Maybe it’ll remind you of the power of prayer, the importance of intercession, and the loving God who hears our prayers, just like He heard the prayers of the Israelites in the desert.

And hey, maybe next time you light a candle or catch a whiff of something aromatic, it’ll be like your own little Tabernacle moment – a physical reminder of God.

Let’s jump into another scent-filled topic from the book of Exodus – the anointing oil.

In Exodus 30:22-33, we’re given the recipe for a very special oil. This wasn’t your run-of-the-mill olive oil; this was a unique blend, packed with a cocktail of specific spices, and it had a high calling. This oil was used to anoint the Tabernacle, the Ark of the Covenant, the table and all its utensils, the lampstand, the altar of incense, the altar of burnt offering, and the basin and its stand – basically everything used in the worship of God.

Why go through all this trouble? Well, anointing these items with this oil consecrated them, setting them apart as holy. They were made special, dedicated for a sacred purpose – to be used in the worship and service of God.

But it wasn’t just things that were anointed; people were, too. Aaron and his sons, the priests, were anointed with this oil, consecrating them for their sacred duties. They were set apart, dedicated to the service of God. This anointing marked them as different, as special. It was a mark of their calling and their commitment to their holy vocation.

Now let’s think about the oil itself. This was a particular blend that was not to be reproduced for any other purpose. The recipe included liquid myrrh, fragrant cinnamon, aromatic cane, cassia, and olive oil. This wasn’t just a functional oil; it was a fragrant oil. This scent would have filled the Tabernacle and marked out those who were anointed as distinct.

This aroma carried weight. It was the smell of sanctity, the fragrance of dedication. When this oil was used, it wasn’t just a moment, but a declaration. It marked the beginning of something holy, something set apart. The scent would have been a potent reminder of the sacred duty and holy calling of the priests.

So, the next time you use some sort of oil, maybe you’ll remember this special, sacred oil from Exodus. Maybe it’ll remind you that we, too, have been anointed, set apart for a sacred purpose – to love and serve God. 

As we go about our daily routines, let’s not forget that we have been set apart, that we have a sacred duty, that we have been marked as a disciple of Christ. And, like that special blend of the anointing oil, our lives should spread the fragrance of Christ wherever we go.

Now we’re about to dive into one of the most beautiful, poetic books of the Bible – the Song of Solomon. Our focus here is on Chapter 4, verses 10-16, where we’re presented with a lot of fragrance imagery.

This passage is a love song, an expression of passion and admiration from a man to his beloved. He’s pouring out his heart and using some serious sensory language here. He talks about the fragrance of his beloved’s perfumes, comparing them to a garden of exotic and aromatic plants.

He says her love is better than wine and the fragrance of her perfumes than all kinds of spices. Now, let’s pause there for a moment. Wine in the Bible often symbolizes joy and celebration, and here, her love is described as even better than that. That’s some high praise!

And her perfumes? Well, he’s not comparing them to just one spice. No, he’s saying they’re better than all spices. That means her essence, who she is, outshines the greatest, most exotic, and most expensive fragrances out there.

But hold on, he’s not done yet. He describes her as a locked garden, a spring enclosed, a sealed fountain. She’s precious, valued, and protected. And within this locked garden, he identifies various fruits, spices, and plants, like pomegranates, henna, nard, saffron, calamus, cinnamon, trees of frankincense, myrrh, and aloes. Each of these plants is fragrant and highly valued, adding to the richness of this garden metaphor.

Finally, he calls upon the winds to blow upon this garden, to spread its fragrance. It’s an invitation for her to express her love, to let the beautiful essence of who she is to be known and experienced.

In this context, the “smell of the fields” serves as a metaphorical and sensory language that conveys the beauty, the intensity, and the value of love. It also showcases the beloved’s character, value, and the impact she has on her lover.

This passage in the Song of Solomon reminds us that love, like a beautiful aroma, should be something that fills and impacts those around us. Love isn’t something to be hoarded but expressed and shared, just like a beautiful fragrance is meant to be enjoyed.

So, let’s allow the smells of the fields, the perfume of love and affection, permeate our lives, spreading joy and celebration wherever we go.

Now, let’s move into the New Testament, and focus in on some Pauline theology about the ‘Aroma of Christ.’ You might be thinking, ‘What on earth does that mean?’. We’re going to get into this by looking at 2 Corinthians 2:14-16 and Ephesians 5:2.

In 2 Corinthians 2:14-16, Paul uses some very interesting imagery. He describes us as the aroma of Christ, and he talks about us spreading this aroma everywhere. But it’s not just any smell. To some, it’s the sweet smell of victory and life, while to others, it’s the stench of defeat and death.

The context here is a Roman Triumph, a massive, victorious parade to celebrate a great military victory. Imagine the scene: the triumphant general, the spoils of war, the captured enemies, the cheering crowds, and amidst it all, the heavy scent of incense filling the air.

In this scenario, the general is Christ, and we are part of His parade, spreading the aroma of His victory over sin and death. But how people react to this aroma depends on their stance towards Christ. To those being saved, it’s a smell that brings life, but to those perishing, it’s a smell that signifies death.

Let’s move to Ephesians 5:2, where we see another facet of this aroma concept. Paul encourages us to live a life of love, just as Christ loved us and gave himself up for us as a fragrant offering and sacrifice to God.

Here, the focus shifts from the public, triumphant victory to a more personal, intimate image: a sacrifice of love. Christ’s self-giving love on the cross was like a sweet-smelling aroma to God. And we’re called to live in the same way, loving others selflessly, sacrificially, in a way that’s pleasing to God.

So, what does this all mean for us as believers?

Firstly, it’s a reminder of our identity in Christ. We’re not just random people going about our lives. No, we’re part of the victorious parade of Christ, and we carry His aroma.

Secondly, it’s about our mission. We’re not just to smell nice; we’re to spread this aroma. That means living our lives in such a way that people can’t ignore the smell. We’re to love, forgive, serve, and give generously, reflecting Christ in everything we do.

And finally, it’s about our calling. We’re to live a life of love, following Christ’s example. This isn’t about feeling warm and fuzzy. It’s about sacrificial love that costs us something, love that reflects the heart of God and is pleasing to Him.

But remember, not everyone will appreciate this aroma. Some people will be drawn to it, finding life and hope. Others might be repelled, challenged, or even offended. And that’s okay. Our job isn’t to make everyone like the smell. Our job is to ensure the aroma is authentic, reflecting the true character and victory of Christ.

So let’s keep this in mind as we go about our lives. We are the aroma of Christ, called to spread His fragrance in our world. Let’s ensure that aroma is as authentic, life-giving, and love-filled as possible. And let’s be prepared for all kinds of reactions, knowing that our role is to faithfully spread the aroma, leaving the responses in God’s hands.

So, inhale deeply. You carry the aroma of Christ. Now go out there and spread that beautiful smell far and wide!

Alright, let’s touch on some other parts of the Bible that link smell to character.

Firstly, Psalm 38:5, where King David is getting pretty raw and honest with God about his sin: “My wounds stink and fester because of my foolishness.” David’s not pulling any punches here. His sins are like a wound that’s infected and stinks – a pungent reminder of his mistakes.

So, what can we gather from David’s bluntness? Well, our actions, like a bad stink, can’t be hidden. They leave a scent trail that’s detectable and points straight back to us. David’s metaphor is meant to hit hard, underlining that when we mess up, it affects us, others, and our relationship with God.

But let’s not get stuck on the negative. There are other verses that use the idea of smell to symbolize good character and pleasing actions.

Take Philippians 4:18, for example. Paul talks about the gifts he received from the Philippians as a “fragrant offering, a sacrifice acceptable and pleasing to God.” He’s not saying their gift physically smelled good; he’s saying their generosity, their kindness, their faithfulness was like a pleasing aroma to God.

So, whether it’s our sins stinking out the place or our loving actions wafting a sweet aroma heavenward, the Bible makes it clear that our character and actions produce a certain “smell,” a spiritual scent that can either be pleasing or repulsive. It’s a call to us to be mindful of the aroma we’re giving off. Are we spreading the stench of selfishness and sin, or are we emitting the fragrant perfume of love, grace, and goodness? Something to ponder, don’t you think?

Alright, let’s dive into the book of Amos and his prophecy. In Amos 5:21, God says through the prophet: “I hate, I despise your feasts, and I take no delight in your solemn assemblies.” Now, if you’re scratching your head wondering where’s the smell in that, well, let’s dig a bit deeper.

You see, in the time of Amos, God’s people were going through the motions. They were holding their religious feasts, making their sacrifices, doing all the right things on the surface, but their hearts were far from God. They were living in injustice and neglecting the poor and needy among them. To put it bluntly, their actions stank, and God wasn’t having any of it.

The rituals and feasts they celebrated involved lots of burnt offerings, and as we’ve talked about, in ancient times, the smell of a sacrifice was considered pleasing to God. But here, God is saying He despises their feasts and takes no delight in them. In other words, He’s turning up His divine nose at their offerings. They don’t smell sweet to Him; they stink of hypocrisy and injustice.

This is a potent illustration of how our actions and attitudes create a kind of spiritual scent. Even when we’re doing the “right” things, if our heart isn’t in the right place, if we’re not acting in love and justice, our actions give off a foul odour to God. It’s not the rituals or sacrifices themselves God is against; it’s the fact that they’re tainted by the people’s unrighteous behaviour.

Amos 5:21 stands as a stark reminder for us today. It’s not enough to go through the motions, to do the “right” things, if our hearts and actions don’t reflect God’s love and justice. We can’t just slap a perfume of piety on top of a stink of sin and expect everything to be rosy. Our actions, our character, our very lives should be a sweet-smelling aroma to God, one that reflects His heart for love, mercy, justice, and righteousness.

So, let’s not forget the message of Amos: our “smell” doesn’t just come from our rituals and religious activities. It comes from a life lived in accordance with God’s heart. If our actions don’t match up with our words, if we’re neglecting love and justice, then we’re giving off a stink, no matter how many religious boxes we’re ticking.

Remember, the best kind of spiritual aroma comes from a life well-lived in God’s eyes, one that prioritizes love, justice, and righteousness. Let’s strive to be a pleasing aroma to God, not just in our words and rituals, but most importantly, in our actions and attitudes.

As we head into the book of Revelation, we’re moving into some pretty heavy and intriguing stuff. Let’s start with Revelation 5:8 and 8:3-4. Here, the prayers of the saints are likened to incense. It’s a beautiful image, the idea that our prayers rise up to God, filling His heavenly throne room with a sweet, pleasing aroma.

In the ancient world, incense was often used in religious ceremonies and rituals. As it burned, the smoke would rise upwards, symbolizing the prayers and petitions of the faithful ascending to the divine. By using this image in Revelation, the text seems to suggest that our prayers aren’t just words we toss into the wind, hoping they’ll reach God. Instead, they rise like incense, sweet and pleasing, directly into the presence of God. The Psalmist, for example, implores, “Let my prayer be counted as incense before you” (Psalm 141:2).

There’s a connection here to the incense used in the Tabernacle we talked about earlier. Remember, that incense was considered holy, a pleasing aroma to the Lord. Now we see that our prayers, too, are a pleasing aroma, holy and cherished by God. It’s a reminder of how intimate and powerful prayer can be. When we pray, we’re not just sending a message to some far-off deity; we’re filling the very throne room of God with the aroma of our prayers.

Moving on, think about Revelation 21-22. Now, these chapters don’t specifically mention smell, but we can make some inferences based on the descriptions of the new heaven and new earth. The image we get is one of perfection, beauty, and wholeness. Sorrow, death, and pain are all gone. The old order of things has passed away.

By implication, this would include any unpleasant smells. In our world, bad odours often indicate something wrong – decay, disease, death. But in the new heaven and new earth, all of that is gone. We can imagine, then, a world filled with only pleasant aromas – the smell of the tree of life, perhaps, or the aroma of a perfectly clean, untainted world.

But let’s not get stuck in imagining literal smells. Revelation is highly symbolic, and this idea of a world without unpleasant odours is no different. It points to a world where sin and death have been eradicated. Just as there are no bad smells, there’s nothing that causes pain or sorrow. It’s a world restored to how God originally intended it to be – good, perfect, and complete.

That brings us back to our topic of smell in the Bible. As we’ve seen, smell often serves as a symbol, pointing to deeper spiritual realities. The pleasing aroma of sacrifices points to our desire to please God. The stench of sin points to our need for repentance and God’s grace. The sweet smell of incense and the absence of bad smells in the new heaven and new earth all point to a future where we’re reconciled fully with God, living in a restored and perfected creation.

So, what’s the big takeaway from all this? Well, it seems that smell, whether it’s a pleasing aroma or a musty stench, plays a pretty significant role in the Bible. It’s more than just a sensory detail; it’s a powerful symbol that carries some deep spiritual insights.

The pleasing smell of sacrifices in Genesis, the purposeful aroma of the Tabernacle’s incense, and the unique scent of the anointing oil all reflect a longing to be in God’s favour. They serve as physical representations of spiritual dedication, a longing to be seen and accepted by God.

Fast forward to the New Testament, and we’re hit with the Aroma of Christ, a smell that tells the world we’re followers of Jesus. It’s a fragrance that some will love, and others, well, not so much. And hey, that’s okay. What matters is that we carry that aroma everywhere we go, reflecting Christ in our words and actions.

Jesus is like the friend who loves you enough to tell you that you smell bad, but instead of leaving you in your stench, offers you a shower and a fresh set of clothes. They don’t abandon you; they help you clean up.

And finally, the visions of Revelation give us a glimpse of a new world, one where every smell is pleasing, every aroma sweet. It’s a world without the stench of sin and death, a world restored to the way God intended it to be.

So, in a nutshell, every whiff, every sniff in the Bible invites us to reflect on our own lives: What kind of aroma are we giving off? Is our life a pleasing fragrance to God? And are we longing for that day when every aroma will be sweet in the new heavens and new earth? In essence, smell in the Bible isn’t just about odour; it’s about character, dedication, identity, and hope.

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